I recently read about the Duke University Foam Project, a resource where any US resident can submit a sample of polyurethane foam to see if it includes any of the 7 common chemical flame retardants. The service is also available to answer questions after the results are given.
The Duke University Superfund Research Center also uses the data to analyze which chemical flame retardants are used in furniture and products.
One only needs to send in a marble sized amount of foam, a submission form, and mail it via USPS. Seems pretty simple! I think this is an amazing resource, although I haven't tried it out yet.